Isoniazid

Anti-TB drug. The active ingredient is the main representative among the derivatives of isonicotinic acid, and has found its application in TB treatment. Other drugs from this group (for example, Ftivazide) are considered as derivatives of isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Isoniazid has high biological activity against mycobacteria – the main ingredient of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is no pronounced chemotherapeutic effect for other infectious agents.

 


Category:

Description

Isoniazid is available in the form of tablets, solution and powder. You can buy it on our website.

Tablets are Packed by 10 pieces in special blisters. The package contains 50, 100, 500 or 1000 tablets.

The solution is produced in ampules of 5 ml. The pack contains 5 or 10 ampules

Indications for use

Anti-TB drug. The active ingredient is the main representative among the derivatives of isonicotinic acid, and has found its application in TB treatment. Other drugs from this group (for example, Ftivazide) are considered as derivatives of isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Isoniazid has high biological activity against mycobacteria – the main ingredient of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is no pronounced chemotherapeutic effect for other infectious agents.

The active substance effects on extracellular and intracellular forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most of the action of the drug is exposed to the actively dividing forms of Mycobacterium. There is no precise description of the mechanism of action. There is an opinion that the principle of the medicament is based on the ability to suppress the process of synthesizing mycolic acids, which are part of the cell wall of the microorganism. Isoniazid can be bought on our website.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics

The active ingredient is well absorbed from the lumen of the digestive tract. The maximum concentration of the active substance is achieved in 1-4 hours after ingestion in the blood. Tubercul static concentration (level of active component in the blood inhibits the activity of the causative agent of tuberculosis) persists for 6-24 hours. Isoniazid easily passes through the blood-brain barrier and penetrates into the various liquid and tissue in the body. The main route of excretion is via the renal system.

Indications for use of Isoniazid.

The drug is prescribed for the treatment of active tuberculosis.

The main indications for use:

tuberculous meningitis (combination therapy);

prevention of the development of tuberculosis of persons who were in contact with a sick patient;

prevention of the development of tuberculosis of persons who gave a positive reaction to Tuberculin (over 5 mm) with confirmed x-ray pattern, which indicates progressive process;

prevention of development of tuberculosis in children under 4 years, which gave a positive reaction tuberculin (10 mm) with a high risk of dissemination.

Higher doses have toxic effects, therefore Isoniazid is used for poisoning dogs.

Drug contraindications

atherosclerosis;

seizures in history;

epilepsy;

polio in history;

pathology of renal/hepatic system.

Side effects of Isoniazid

Blood (hemostasis, hematopoiesis) and cardiovascular systems:

pain in region of heart;

increase of the level of pulmonary blood pressure;

heart palpitations;

angina;

the increased severity of ischemic processes in the myocardium in elderly age;

encephalopathy;

insomnia;

irritability;

headaches;

amnesia;

peripheral neuritis;

increased frequency of seizures of individuals with epilepsy.

Digestive tract:

vomiting;

nausea;

dryness in the mouth;

toxic hepatitis;

increased activity of ALT, AST, bilirubin;

prodromal symptoms of hepatitis (unusual weakness or fatigue, vomiting, loss of appetite and nausea);

hyperbilirubinemia.

Acute overdose.

High doses can cause metabolic acidosis, cause epileptic seizures that are not amenable to standard therapy. Severe cases may develop coma and death.

The first signs of poisoning have been recorded for 30 minutes after taking the drug:

tachycardia;

vomiting;

dizziness;

the vagueness of the question.

If you have acute poisoning, an epileptic seizure may develop at lightning speed without prior symptoms. It is enough to take 20 mg/kg of Isoniazid for the development of seizure. In case of severe poisoning, it develops coma, which can last for 24-36 hours.

Acute toxic symptoms of poisoning:

hyperthermia;

hypotension;

glucosuria;

hyperglycemia;

acute renal failure;

ketonuria.

Chronic overdose

Long-term therapy in high doses causes necrosis of hepatocytes. During the first months of treatment patients often record increased ALT and AST. Hepatitis can be indicated in the laboratory during the year. If you choose the proper treatment and adequate dosing, clinically significant hepatitis develops in only 0.1% of patients. The mortality rate from liver disease in the treatment of TB means is 0.001%.

The prolonged therapy with high doses may cause optic neuritis, polyneuropathy. Neurotoxic effect manifests itself with a deficit of Pyridoxine and is greatly enhanced by the formation of inactive complexes of hydrazones with Pyridoxine. Typical symptoms of neuropathy – impaired sensation of the “socks” and “gloves” type in the distal extremities with gradual spread above. It additionally develops muscle weakness, myalgia. The defeat of the optic nerve deteriorates visual perception, it may form a central scotoma in severe cases. Neurotoxicity leads to the development of psychosis, ataxia, hallucinations and coma.

Treatment of overdose

The drug can be purchased on our website.

First aid is directed to the relief of the epileptic seizure, the restoration of the airway, stabilization of basic physiological parameters, performing infusion therapy.

If you notice the development of severe acidosis it is recommended to have intravenous injection of sodium bicarbonate. The reception of enterosorbents, activated carbon is effective for removal of active substance from the digestive tract. Neurological manifestations are avoided by the introduction of Vitamin B6 (in the development of the coma, metabolic acidosis and convulsions). During the first administration the maximum dose of Pyridoxine is 5 g. Benzodiazepines are prescribed in order to enhance the effect of Vitamin B6. Hemodialysis helps to accelerate the elimination of TB (it is rarely used in practice).

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Isoniazid”

Related products

error: Content is protected !!